What Is a Takeover? Definition, How They’re Funded, and Example

An in-depth exploration of these various forms of takeovers is crucial for understanding how they can impact a company’s growth and development in the competitive business environment. Another reason is that it may want to expand market share, and may look totakeover a competitor to increase their market share and eliminate competition in the process. However, doing so may give rise to monopolies, which can draw scrutiny and regulation. What separates a takeover from an acquisition, is that management or the board generally do not consent to a takeover. In an acquisition deal these parties may be involved in every aspect of a deal. Our website offers information about investing and saving, but not personal advice.

An unwelcome or hostile takeover can be quite aggressive as one party is not a willing participant. In corporate finance, there can be a variety of ways for structuring a takeover. This defense tactic is officially known as a shareholder https://bigbostrade.com/ rights plan. The buyer who triggered the defense, usually the acquiring company, is excluded from the discount. In July 2011, activist investor Carl Icahn offered to pay Clorox shareholders $76.50 a share to take the company private.

  1. In a reverse takeover bid, a private company bids to buy a public corporation.
  2. In a sense, any government tax policy of allowing for deduction
    of interest expenses but not of dividends, has essentially provided a substantial subsidy to takeovers.
  3. It may not be strong or have experience in some industries and markets, and may wish to merge with another company that does.

When a company, investor, or group of investors makes a tender offer to purchase the shares of another company at a premium above the current market value (CMV), the board of directors may reject the offer. The acquirer can approach the shareholders, who may accept the offer if it is at a sufficient premium to market value or if they are unhappy with current management. The Williams Act of 1968 regulates tender offers and requires the disclosure of all-cash tender offers. Ideally, an entity interested in acquiring a company should seek approval from the target company’s board of directors.

An acquirer might entice shareholders to sell out by offering to acquire shares above the current market price. For example, if a company’s stock is $12, a firm may offer a buyout at $20 a share to shareholders, making this profit of $8 ($20 – $12) very enticing to shareholders. A “golden parachute” measure discourages an unwanted takeover by offering lucrative benefits to the current top executives, who may lose their jobs if their company is acquired by another firm. Benefits written into the executives’ contracts include items such as stock options, bonuses, generous severance pay, and so on. Golden parachutes can be worth millions of dollars and can cost the acquiring firm a lot of money and therefore act as a strong deterrent to proceeding with their takeover bid. A common strategy for the target company is to make itself less attractive to the hostile bidder.

Every Letter Is Silent, Sometimes: A-Z List of Examples

Also, there is the matter of where her private plane could land – available spots for private planes at Las Vegas area airports are going fast. Yarilet Perez is an experienced multimedia journalist and fact-checker with a Master of Science in Journalism. She has worked in multiple cities covering breaking news, politics, education, and more.

More from Merriam-Webster on takeover

This tactic also leaves behind no negotiating party that could make a deal with an acquirer. The buyer might offer to buy shares in the company for a specified price. This is usually at a price that’s higher than the current share price, in order to incentivise shareholders to sell. If it’s a private equity firm, management might be concerned about the potential for asset stripping. Even if that’s not the case, it might mean shareholders miss out on the benefits of a recovery. Alternatively, the hostile bidder may discreetly buy enough stocks of the company in the open market.

The $38-per-share acquisition gave 21st Century Fox shareholders the option to elect cash or stock in the combined entity. A white knight is a company (the “good guy”) that gallops in to make a friendly takeover offer to a target company that is facing a hostile takeover from another party (a “black knight”). The white knight offers the target firm a way out with a friendly takeover. It is harder for the bidder to conduct extensive due diligence if the target is resisting the acquisition attempt.


There are several reasons why companies could initiate a takeover. An acquiring company will attempt an opportunistic takeover where it thinks the target is priced well. In practise there is often a blurring of the distinction between merger and acquisition. Generally, an acquisition is a takeover of a firms assets, with some resistance from shareholders.

The difference between a hostile and a friendly takeover is that, in a friendly takeover, the target company’s board of directors approve of the transaction and recommend shareholders vote in favor of the deal. A “hostile takeover” is an unfriendly takeover attempt by a company or raider that is strongly resisted by the management and the board of directors of the target firm. These types of takeovers are usually bad news, affecting employee morale at the targeted firm, which can quickly turn to animosity against the acquiring firm. Grumblings like, “Did you hear they are axing a few dozen people in our finance department…” can be heard by the water cooler.

What Is a Hostile Takeover?

Because if a company is in danger, the redemption price of the bonds expands, kind of like macaroni in a pot! This is a highly useful tactic, but the target company must be careful it doesn’t issue so much debt that it cannot make the interest payments. Takeovers are announced practically every day, but announcing them doesn’t necessarily mean everything will go ahead as planned. There are many strategies that management can use during M&A activity, and almost all of these strategies are aimed at affecting the value of the target’s stock in some way. Let’s take a look at some more popular ways that companies can protect themselves from a predator. Afterward, the target company (usually) ceases to exist as a legal entity, unless it is a reverse takeover.

Creeping takeover

In contrast, an acquisition generally involves inequalities—a larger company targeting a smaller one. In a friendly takeover, the bidding firm approaches a firms managing board to make an offer for the target firm. If the board agrees the takeover represents could value for shareholders they will recommend shareholders take advantage of the takeover.

They might believe they can turn the business around without intervention. And in that case, they’ll say it’s not in shareholders’ best interests. If the company in question is absorbed into a larger business, they might be given shares, but the growth from any recovery will be rolled into the wider business’ performance. If the company in question is limping along toward bankruptcy, top five cryptocurrencies a private equity firm could decide to step in and buy it. In this case, the private equity firm is looking to profit from the sum of the business’ parts by selling them off. A “macaroni defense” is a tactic by which the target company issues a large number of bonds that come with the guarantee that they will be redeemed at a higher price if the company is taken over.

Ideally, if the board feels that accepting the offer serves the shareholders better than rejecting it, it recommends the offer be accepted by the shareholders. A hostile takeover can be a difficult and lengthy process and attempts often end up unsuccessful. The Clorox board even sidelined Icahn’s proxy fight efforts, and the attempt ultimately ended in a few months with no takeover. The Pac-Man defense has the target company aggressively buy stock in the company attempting the takeover. An individual or organization, sometimes known as a corporate raider, can purchase a large fraction of the company’s stock and, in doing so, get enough votes to replace the board of directors and the CEO. With a new agreeable management team, the stock is, potentially, a much more attractive investment, which might result in a price rise and a profit for the corporate raider and the other shareholders.

In today’s dynamic economic environment, companies are often faced with decisions concerning these actions—after all, the job of management is to maximize shareholder value. Through mergers and acquisitions, a company can (at least in theory) develop a competitive advantage and ultimately increase shareholder value. A reverse takeover occurs when a private company purchases a publicly-listed company. The bidder does not back always off if the board of a publicly-listed company rejects the offer. If the bidder still pursues the acquisition, it becomes a hostile takeover situation.

Rather than going through the B of D of the target company, a hostile bid involves going directly to the target’s shareholders with the bid. Hostile bidders issue a tender offer, giving shareholders the opportunity to sell their stock to the acquirer at a substantial premium within a set timeframe. Basically, a hostile takeover bid is the attempted acquisition of a target company, but one that takes place without the consent of the target company’s board of directors. It allows shareholders of the target to buy more shares at a discount to dilute the holdings of the acquirer and make a takeover costlier. When a private limited company takes over a public limited one, a reverse takeover occurs. The acquiring company must have ample resources to finance the acquisition.

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